16 Jan 2007

Ammendments to Etruscan Dictionary Draft 003

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Ammendments to Draft 003
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Draft 004 is set for November 15, 2007.


As of Friday, November 9, 2007:
  • There are 942 secure items in the database.
  • There are 1125 items in total.

Nov 9, 2007
Laristi [male praenomen] - Add item.
Attested in CIE 4074 in the genitive Larstial.
Śiθurna [gentilicium] - Modify form: Śiθurina
Tantale [gentilicium] - Add item.
Attested in CIE 4072, 4073, 4074, 4075 and 4076. It's a name borrowed from Greek Τάνταλος (Tantalos).
Tantalina [gentilicium] - Add item.
Attested as Tantlnaś in the genitive in TLE 6. It's probably a derivative of Tantale.

Nov 7 & 8, 2007
Ane [male praenomen] - Add item.
Attested in the genitive (Anes) in TLE 117.
Apatru [gentilicium] - Modify form: Apiatru.
I've found the name attested as Apaiatrus [TLE 122], Apiatrus [TLE 122] and Apatrual [TLE 136], all in the genitive, but the common "earliest" form I give for this entry, Apiatru, is a subjective guess. I still need to find the origin of this name. It all looks Greek to me... and I mean that literally, not figuratively :P
Cuclunaie [gentilicium] - Add item.
We find Cuclnies in TLE 117 and 144, as well as Cuclnial in TLE 126 and 129. I assume that the name is a derivative of *Cucluna plus genitilicial suffix -ie. *Cucluna would in turn be a derivative of Cuclu "Cyclops". In other words, I'm thinking that this is a theonymic family name similar to what we find in the Near East where people are named after Ba'al and other gods.
Prastina [gentilicium] - Add item.
Terasia [male praenomen] - Modify form and translation: Teriasia [mythos]
The name is derived from Greek Τειρεσίας (Teiresias) and should be classified under mythos, not a male praenomen. An error on my part.
Viśal "Faesulae [city]" - Modify form: Visal
Zalθu [gentilicium] - Add item.
Attested in TLE 116 in the unmarked nomino-accusative case.
Zertina [gentilicium] - Add item.
Attested in TLE 123 in the locative as Zertnei.

Nov 6, 2007
Marχarie [male praenomen] - Add item.
Attested in the genitive as Marχars in TLE 113. So far, I'm presuming that this is borrowed from Latin Marcarius which is, I'm guessing, a contamination of Macarius (via Marcus). I know for sure at least that the name Macarius without -r- is originally a Greek name Μακαριος (Makarios) based on μακαρ 'blessed, happy'.
Seicia [gentilicium] - Add item.
Attested in CIE 23, 24 and 4445.
Sentie [gentilicium] - Add item.
Attested in TLE 113 in the genitive (Senties).
Θamrie [male praenomen] - Add item.
The genitive, Θamries, is found in TLE 260.
Χeste [male praenomen] - Add item.
Attested in TLE 113 in the genitive (Χestes).

Nov 5, 2007
Felcie [gentilicium] - Add item.
Attested in both genitive forms in TLE 130 (Felces, Felcial) indicating differences in gender.
Velχina [gentilicium] - Add item.
Vestaraie [gentilicium] - Modify form: Vestiraie.
It surely must be related to another gentilicium I have under Vestiricina, attested as Vestiricinala under TLE 868. I haven't found the etymological source of this name yet but it's related to the Latin names Vestricius, Vestergius and Vestergennius as well as to the Oscan name Vestirikiíoí. (Mélanges d'archéologie et d'histoire (1881), p.592 mentions the connection between these names). I have a million and one things to look up apparently. Busy, busy, busy.
Vucina [gentilicium] - Add item.

Nov 3, 2007
Statilane [gentilicium] - Add item.
Attested in inscriptions TLE 187 to 190. Probably connected with Latin gentilicium Statilius.

Oct 24, 2007

Estra [deity] - Modify form and translation: Estara "Ashtarte [deity]".
Found only in the Liber Linteus and always in the locative form, Estrei. Note that this has nothing to do with the Pyrgi Tablets and while *Unial-Aśtreś "of Uni-Ashtarte" is popularly tweased from that artifact, this appears to be a misreading of Unialaś-treś "to (the temple) of Uni" with the dative postposition -treś "towards" (from earlier -traiś). Uni herself was evidently considered the equivalent of Phoenician Ashtarot based on these inscriptions. There would be little need to hyphenate the names together and this is not done in the Phoenician section of this text.
hatrencu [person] - Modify translation: [unknown female designation].
Slowly, little by little, I triangulate a more precise translation. The term is strangely used for females specifically from the town of Vulci. I've read theories about a religious sisterhood in relation to this word, but I'd really like to learn more on this. Interestingly, this pdf mentions Lesley Lundeen and her questioning of the status quo concerning such a priesthood. She apparently urges to steer away from the rigid Roman comparisons and look to Asia Minor for greater understanding of Etruscan religion. If that's a proper account of her position then all I can say is "Finally, a true scholar in Etruscology. There's hope." More reading for me.
Leve [gentilicium]. - Modify form: Levia
The genitive Levial is attested in TLE 912.
Tarsula [gentilicium] - Add item.
Attested in TLE 313.

Oct 19, 2007

Licantre [male praenomen] - Add item.
From Greek Λύκανδρος (Lykandros), found in CIE 1529.
Nicipur [male praenomen] - Add item.
From Greek Νικηφόρος (Nikephoros), found in CIE 2489.
Pure [male praenomen] - Add item.
From Greek Πύρρος (Purros).
Tinusi [male praenomen] - Add item.
From Greek Διονύσιος (Dionysios), found in CIE 2066, 2067, 2835 and 2836.
Zarapiiun [male praenomen] - Add item.
From Greek Σαραπίων (Sarapion), attested as Zarapiu (CIE 2240) or Zerapiu (CIE 475, 4514) with later loss of -n parallel to what we witness in some spellings of Χarun 'Charon [deity]' as Χaru. I'm adding the second -i- to be phonotactically consistent and to represent the glide /j/.

Oct 18, 2007

Pilunice [male praenomen] - Add item.
Attested in TLE 556 and borrowed from Greek Φιλόνικος (Philonikos).


  1. I've tried making an alphabetized list of the Online Etruscan-English dictionary, and have nearly completed it.
    I took the liberty of using the Latin letter-order, and inserted χ, φ, ś, and θ after c, p, s, and t respectively.

    Most of the editing so far has been straightforward, but I'd like to know if *papamer is correct, or if it should be *papaver, like in your post on the word.

  2. I hate to say it but... What a grievous waste of your time.

    I started with PDF lists but once I made my searchable and updatable dictionary applet, lists became inferior to this new system.

    Since I update monthly or sometimes weekly, any list you think you've completed will have already been outdated. Your efforts will always be second-rate. So this is why I'm confused by what you're trying to accomplish.

    And yes, *papamer is not a typo. I'm pursuing some possible etymological links and if it pans out and I can drum up stronger evidence, I'll explain it on my blog.

  3. The reason I made this was for an alternative (for the old-minded), and since on occasion, the entires in your applet aren't in alphabetical order (e.g. "Acnasvers" might inexplicably come after Athnal. That specific example didn't happen, but similar things did).

    Also, I figured that it might make creating and English-Etruscan version somewhat (somehow) less daunting by making it in table format, and then having it organized by the English meanings.

  4. Aaah, that English-to-Etruscan function was on my to-do list, I know. Now I see what you're up to. Before I tackle the English look-up function, I want to straighten out some other issues in my belaboured brain that my database has brought me face-to-face with. Stuff like theories on data organization and some novel approaches I might try.

    Let me know of a specific example of this alphabetizing bug.

  5. Such troubles appear just by tying ac*.
    Acalas ni.(I) Acalva [month] (gen.sg.)
    Acalve ni.(I) Acalva [month] (loc.)
    Acale ni.(I) Acalva [month] (loc.)
    Acalia ni.(I) Acalva [month] (comm.)
    Acalva ni.(I) Acalva [month] (na.)
    Acries na.(I/II) Acarie [gentilicium] (gen.)
    Acarie na.(I/II) Acarie [gentilicium] (na.)

    These are examples of the base form coming after a declined form. Now to the original issue:

    *acilune v.i. to be full, to be abundant (caus.pret.)
    *acilθ v.i. to be full, to be abundant (part.)
    *acil v.i. to be full, to be abundant (inf.)

    Also, with ach*:
    -aχ suff.n. [pertinentive]
    aχesχ ni.(II) clay vessel (na.sg.)
    *aχ v.tr. to complete, to finish (inf.)

  6. Also, I observed what may be a slip:

    this, the (loc.) -cle pron.prox.
    this, the (loc.+'in') cl-θ pron.prox.
    this, the (loc.+'in') ecl-θi pron.prox.
    this, the (loc.+gen.) clel pron.prox.

    Isn't -le the type II dative ending?

  7. Ah right. This is an annoying little problem, I do admit. Livable but annoying. It involves the fact that I lumped all attested forms under a word entry in a single field "forms" and that, rather than organizing according to alphabet, I listed them according to derivation type (ie. nomino-accusative, genitive, locative etc. in that order).

    So this comes back to some ideas I'm still exploring on how I can reorganize data in a less time-consuming way. After coming across others with similar problems, I've learned that relational databases might be more evil than we think and there could be better ways. Unfortunately, I'm still piecing it together causing a standstill when it comes to improving my system.

    And finally, yes, -le is the type II dative ending... for nouns. However cle seems to mean 'with this', a locative. While there is the independent (ie. non-suffixed) form cei, I see no enclitic counterpart other than -cle. There is no suffix **-ci as one might expect.

  8. While there is the independent (ie. non-suffixed) form cei, I see no enclitic counterpart other than -cle. There is no suffix **-ci as one might expect.

    Could this imply the loss of the dative form, and the transfer of dative function to the locative form?

  9. You could try that but then you'd have to contend with cla 'of the' and -cl=θi 'in the', both with this same interloping -l-.

    So another explanation might involve 1) an acceptance that demonstrative declension is distinct from general nominal declension and 2) that this "linker" -l- in demonstrative oblique cases (ie. cases outside of nominative, accusative and genitive) is a rather ancient feature of the language somehow.

  10. hi guys
    I am intereted in the verb "um" and its passive voice form "umene" as of Glen's glossary; unfortunately I could not locate the item description giving the original inscription this was obtained from and how this meaning was determined
    hope you can help

  11. The word umene is found on ET Vs 2.12, a Volsinian vessel of the 6th to 5th century BCE. This vessel, quite simply, "was dedicated".